Normally, around 35-50ml of scarlet or brown blood, possibly with clots, is discharged during a single menstrual cycle. As a rule, it is the volume of blood loss that determines the period blood colors and textures. Causes of heavy periods are almost always pathological. Scanty periods can be determined by two physiological causes, namely perimenopause and intake of oral contraceptives and at least 5 pathological factors. A timely visit to a gynecologist can help in finding out the underlying cause of the pathology.
Maturation of the ovum, its emergence from the follicle, preparation of endometrial lining to possible pregnancy, as well as its rejection in case conception does not take place – follow one after another throughout the menstrual cycle. Consequently, menstruation is the process of exfoliated mucous membrane’s detachment, which is discharged along with blood from the vessels, affected in the process of rejection.
On average, during each cycle a woman loses 35-50ml of red or brown blood, sometimes with clots. Discharge of more than 80ml of blood or necessity to change pads every 60 minutes point to excessively intense bleeding, and are referred to as menorrhagia. Alternatively, scanty periods are defined by the terms “hypomenorrhea”.
Bright red color of menstrual blood in case of menorrhagia
When there is too much of discharged blood, it does not have time to coagulate; therefore, it acquires a bright red color. Any clots that can be observed in it are either endometrial particles or, for example, elements of the disrupted ovum. It is generally believed that a woman may experience over dozen of such micro-abortions, not even being aware of her pregnancy since regulation of this process takes place on the genetic level.
Profuse bleeding in case of actual interruption of pregnancy/miscarriage (in this context it does not matter whether it is the case with normal or ectopic pregnancy or a hydatidiform mole) is characterized by disturbed well-being and acute pain with possible loss of consciousness.
Apart from miscarriage, there are also at least 6 factors that can provoke menorrhagia:
1. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding
DUB is a term, used to denote pathological periods, occurring after several anovulatory cycles in succession. The fact is that in certain stages of their lives (during the establishment of the cycle or in the postmenopausal period) women experience hormonal alterations – growth of endometrium along with insufficient secretion of estrogen and absence of ovulation.
Consequently, the envisioned rejection of the mucous membrane fails to take place. It continues growing in the next cycle until the separation of the useless endometrial lining is syndicated. At that, the exfoliated membrane can be rather massive – the more extensive it is, the more intense compensating period will be. In order to correct DUB doctors usually recommend intake of hormonal contraceptives.